The World

Canada

Atlantic Provinces

Art and Technology

1830 -   Revolutions in France, Poland etc.
1834 -   Slavery abolished throughout the British Empire.
1837 -   Queen Victoria begins her reign.

1832 -   Inauguration of the Rideau Canal
1834 -   York becomes Toronto
1837 -   The Mackenzie uprising in Toronto
1838 -   Execution of Lount and Mathews, who were leaders of the uprising.

1838 -   Acadia University founded.
1839 -   Lunenburg granted free port status.
1839 -   The Sampson, one of Atlantic Canada's first steam locomotives, goes into service between Albion Mines and Pictou harbour.

1830 -   Invention of the sewing machine.
1836 -   Haliburton's Clockmaker.
1837 -   Daguerre's first daguerreotype; invention of the electric telegraph.
1838 -   First state portrait of Queen Victoria by Sir George Hayter.

1840 -   The Penny Black, the world's first adhesive stamp, issued in Britain.
1844 -   Texas annexed to the U.S.
1845 -   Terrible famine in Ireland.
1846 -   Corn laws repealed in Great Britain.
1846 -   U.S. war with Mexico.
1847 -   Beginning of the California gold rush; U.S. troops occupy Mexico City.
1848 -   Revolution in France.

1840 -   Act of Union of the Canadas.
1841 -   Union of the Canadas with the capital in Kingston.
1844 -   Montreal the capital of Canada.
1849 -   Burning of the parliament building in Montreal; Toronto becomes the capital.

1840 -   Carbonear riot in Newfoundland.
1842 -   Charles Dickens visited Halifax.
1846 -   Abraham Gesner distilled oil from coal (kerosene) and tested it in a lighthouse in Halifax harbour.
1847 -   Reform victory in Nova Scotia.
1848 -   Nova Scotia becomes the first British Colony to win responsible government.

1840 -   Samuel Cunard starts the first regular mail steamers between Britain and America.
1840 -   Painter Claude Monet born; sculptor Auguste Rodin born.
1841 -   Sir James Clark Ross explores the antarctic and discovers Ross Ice Shelf and Mt. Erebus.
1846 -   Richard Redgrave painted The Sempstress.

1850 -   Gold is discovered in Australia.
1851 -   The Great Exhibition in London.
1852 -   Napoleon III (nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte)  becomes Emperor of France.
1854 -   Commander Perry forced a trade treaty on Japan.
1854 - 1856 Crimean War.
1857 -   Indian Mutiny.
1858 -   The Crown takes over company administration of India.

1858 -   Mainland British Columbia becomes a separate Crown colony.
1859 -   Quebec the capital; start of government buildings in Ottawa.

1851 -   Nova Scotia issued its first postage stamp.
1854 -   Nova Scotia held an industrial exhibition at Province House.
1855 -   Newfoundland ratifies reciprocity; responsible government there and in P.E.I.
1855 -   Adolphus Gaetz begins writing his diary about events in Lunenburg.
1858 -   Governor Earl Mulgrave and his wife visited Lunenburg.

1850 -   Founding of the Reuters news agency.
1851 -   Sir Edwin Landseer painted The Monarch of the Glen.
1851 -   Invention of the rotary printing press.
1853 -   Vincent van Gogh born.
1854 -   Otis invents the hydraulic elevator.
1854 -   Florence Nightingale arrived in Scutari in the Crimea and set about improving hospital conditions.
1859 -   Darwin publishes The Origin of Species.

1860 -   Abraham Lincoln elected U.S. President; beginning of the U.S. Civil War.
1861 -   Prince Albert (Queen Victoria's husband) died of typhoid.
1863 -   Battle of Gettysburg marks the turning point of the Civil War.
1864 -   Founding of the International Red Cross.
1865 -   End of the U.S. Civil War; freedom for all slaves; President Abraham Lincoln assassinated.
1866 -   First transatlantic telegraph cable laid.
1867 -   U.S. purchases Alaska from the Czar.
1869 -   Wyoming gives the vote to women; Suez Canal completed.

1864 -   Charlottetown conference on Confederation.
1865 -   Province of Canada votes for Confederation and its ministers go to London.
1866 -   The Westminster conference on Confederation.
1867 -   London votes through the British North America Act; Confederation inaugurated July 1st with John A. Macdonald the first Prime Minister.
1869 -   Canada purchases the North-West Territories.

1863 -   Conservative victory installs pro-Confederation Tupper government in Nova Scotia.
1864 -   Free School Act passed.
1865 -   First Academy built in Lunenburg.
1865 -          Newfoundlanders reject Confederation.
1866 -   584 km of railway track laid in the Maritimes.
1866 -   Tupper pushes Confederation through in Nova Scotia.
1868 -   A wave of secessionism in Nova Scotia led by Joseph Howe.
1869 -   Velocipede craze reaches Lunenburg.

1861 -   Invention of the velocipede; Mrs Beeton's Book of Household Management published.
1864 -   Alfred Nobel invents nitroglycerine.
1865 -   First manufacture of reinforced concrete.
1866 -   Nobel discovers dynamite; Dostoievsky's Crime and Punishment.
1868 -   Discovery of helium.
1869 -   The first manufacture of margarine.

1870 -   The fall of Napoleon.
1873 -   Dr Livingstone died in Africa.
1874 -   Founding of the International Postal Union.
1877 -   Queen Victoria proclaimed Empress of India.
1878 -   Foundation of the Salvation Army.

1870 -   Manitoba becomes the fifth Province; British Columbia joins the Confederation.
1873 -   P.E.I. joins Confederation

1871 -   European-American railway completed from Halifax through NB to Maine.
1873 -   Joseph Howe appointed Lieutenant-Governor of Nova Scotia; he died 3 weeks later.
1873 -   Adolphus Gaetz died.
1876 -   Intercolonial railway completed between Halifax and Quebec.

1876 -   Alexander Graham Bell invents the telephone; construction of the first internal combustion engine.
1878 -   Mr G Westhaver of Mahone Bay patented The Housewife's Friend, a washing machine.
1879 -   Invention of the incandescent light bulb.

1880 -   Founding of the Panama Canal Company.
1883 -   First appearance of the Marxist party in Russia.
1887 -   Queen Victoria's Golden Jubilee.
1889 -   Europe swept by labour strikes.

1880 -   Founding of the Canadian Pacific Railway Company.
1881 -   Fisheries Agreement with the U.S.A.
1885 -   Completion of the Canadian Pacific Railway.
1886 -   Inauguration of trans-continental service.
1889 -   Eliza Ritchie received a PhD at Cornell University to become the first Canadian woman to earn a doctorate.

1884 -   Wives could now own their own property in Nova Scotia.
1887 -   Anna Leonowens ("Anna and the King of Siam") founded the Victoria School of Art and Design (now the Nova Scotia College of Art and Design).
1889 -   Bandstand built in Lunenburg; train line extended to Lunenburg from Bridgewater and Middleton.

1880 -   Ottawa's National Gallery founded.
1881 -   Rodin produced The Thinker.
1882 -   Isolation of the tuberculosis bacillus.
1885 -   Construction of the first automobile using gasoline.
1886 -   George Eastman invents the first cinematic camera.
1889 -   The Eiffel Tower is erected in Paris.

1890 -   The Sherman Anti-Trust Act enacted in the U.S.A.
1894 -   War between China and Japan.
1898 -   The Spanish-American war; the U.S. invades the Philippines, Puerto Rico and Guam; annexation of Hawaii by the U.S.
1899 -   Outbreak of the Boer War.

1891 -   Death of John A. Macdonald.
1896 -   Gold discovered in the Klondike; new boundaries given to Quebec.
1898 -   Yukon becomes a separate District from the North-West Territories.
1899 -   The first Canadian contingent leaves for South Africa.

1893 -   First Academy in Lunenburg burnt to the ground.
1894 -   Annie Isabella Hamilton became the first woman to graduate as a M.D. from Dalhousie Medical School.
1895 -   New Academy opened in Lunenburg on Gallows Hill.
1896 -   Lunenburg Foundry opened.
1898 -   Lunenburg hockey team formed, called Victoria.
1899 -   Bridgewater NS incorporated.

1890 -   Van Gogh died.
1891 -   Pavlov discovers the "conditioned reflex".
1892 -   Lorentz discovers the electron.
1895 -   F. Bell Smith paints a portrait of Queen Victoria.
1898 -   Pierre and Marie Curie discover radium.
1899 -   Foundation stone of the Victoria & Albert Museum laid in London.

1900 -   The Boxer Rebellion in China.
1901 -   Death of Queen Victoria; the Commonwealth of Australia comes into being.
1902 -   Boer War over; peace treaty signed on 31st May.

1901 -   Canadian military return from the Boer War; this was the first time that Canadians fought in an international theatre of war.
1902 -   Last public hanging in Canada.

1901 -   Population of Nova Scotia just less than 460,000.
1901 -   Death of Pictou-born George Mercer Dawson, who helped survey the route of the Canadian Pacific Railway in BC.

1900 -   First trans-ocean telegraph communication between Cornwall in Great Britain and Newfoundland.
1902 -   Marconi set up the first trans-ocean wireless station near Glace Bay, Cape Breton.

1.
Children at School
2.
Children at Play
3.
Women's Work in the Home
4.
Changes in Food Preparation
5.
Business in Town
6.
Recreation
7.
Time Line: 1830 to 1901
8.
Acknowledgements
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